1. svn—Subversion Command-Line Client

svn is the official command-line client of Subversion. It offers no small number of subcommands and options. Subcommands and other non-option arguments must appear in a specified order on the command line used to invoke svn. Options, on the other hand, may appear anywhere on the command line (after the program name, of course), and in general, their order is irrelevant. For example, all of the following are valid ways to use svn status, and are interpreted in exactly the same way:

$ svn -vq status myfile
$ svn status -v -q myfile
$ svn -q status -v myfile
$ svn status -vq myfile
$ svn status myfile -qv

1.1. svn 选项

While Subversion has different options for its subcommands, all options exist in a single namespace—that is, each option is guaranteed to mean the same thing regardless of the subcommand you use it with. For example, --verbose (-v) always means verbose output, regardless of the subcommand you use it with.

The svn command-line client usually exits quickly with an error if you pass it an option which does not apply to the specified subcommand. But as of Subversion 1.5, several of the options which apply to all—or nearly all—of the subcommands have been deemed acceptable by all subcommands, even if they have no effect on some of them. They appear grouped together in the command-line client's usage messages as global options. This was done to assist folks who write scripts which wrap the command-line client. These global options are as follows:

--config-dir DIR



Sets, for the duration of the command, the value of a runtime configuration option. FILE and SECTION are the runtime configuration file (either config or servers) and the section thereof, respectively, which contain the option whose value you wish to change. OPTION is, of course, the option itself, and VALUE the value (if any) you wish to assign to the option. For example, to temporarily disable the use of the automatic property setting feature, use --config-option=config:miscellany:enable-auto-props=no. You can use this option multiple times to change multiple option values simultaneously.


Prevents caching of authentication information (e.g., username and password) in the Subversion runtime configuration directories.


Disables all interactive prompting. Some examples of interactive prompting include requests for authentication credentials and conflict resolution decisions. This is useful if you're running Subversion inside an automated script and it's more appropriate to have Subversion fail than to prompt for more information.

--password PASSWD

Specifies the password to use when authenticating against a Subversion server. If not provided, or if incorrect, Subversion will prompt you for this information as needed.


When used with --non-interactive, instructs Subversion to accept SSL server certificates issued by unknown certificate authorities without first prompting the user. For security's sake, you should use this option only when the integrity of the remote server and the network path between it and your client is known to be trustworthy.

--username NAME

Specifies the username to use when authenticating against a Subversion server. If not provided, or if incorrect, Subversion will prompt you for this information as needed.

The rest of the options apply and are accepted by only a subset of the subcommand. They are as follows:

--accept ACTION

Specifies an action for automatic conflict resolution. Possible actions are postpone, base, mine-full, theirs-full, edit, and launch.



--change (-c) ARG

Used as a means to refer to a specific change (a.k.a. a revision). This option is syntactic sugar for -r ARG-1:ARG.

--changelist ARG

Instructs Subversion to operate only on members of the changelist named ARG. You can use this option multiple times to specify sets of changelists.

--cl ARG

选项 --changelist 的别名。

--depth ARG

Instructs Subversion to limit the scope of an operation to a particular tree depth. ARG is one of empty (only the target itself), files (the target and any immediate file children thereof), immediates (the target and any immediate children thereof), or infinity (the target and all of its descendants—full recursion).

--diff-cmd CMD

Specifies an external program to use to show differences between files. When svn diff is invoked without this option, it uses Subversion's internal diff engine, which provides unified diffs by default. If you want to use an external diff program, use --diff-cmd. You can pass options to the diff program with the --extensions (-x) option (more on that later in this section).

--diff3-cmd CMD



Goes through all the motions of running a command, but makes no actual changes—either on disk or in the repository.

--editor-cmd CMD

Specifies an external program to use to edit a log message or a property value. See the editor-cmd section in 第 1.3.2 节 “配置” for ways to specify a default editor.

--encoding ENC

Tells Subversion that your commit message is encoded in the charset provided. The default is your operating system's native locale, and you should specify the encoding if your commit message is in any other encoding.

--extensions (-x) ARG

Specifies customizations which Subversion should make when performing difference calculations. Valid extensions include:

--ignore-space-change (-b)

Ignore changes in the amount of white space.

--ignore-all-space (-w)

Ignore all white space.


Ignore changes in EOL (end-of-line) style.

--show-c-function (-p)

Show C function names in the diff output.

--unified (-u)

Show three lines of unified diff context.

The default value of ARG is -u. If you wish to pass multiple arguments, you must enclose all of them in quotes.

Note that when Subversion is configured to invoke an external diff command, the value of the --extension (-x) option isn't restricted to the previously mentioned options, but may be any additional arguments which Subversion should pass to that command.

--file (-F) FILENAME

Uses the contents of the named file for the specified subcommand, though different subcommands do different things with this content. For example, svn commit uses the content as a commit log, whereas svn propset uses it as a property value.


Forces a particular command or operation to run. Subversion will prevent you from performing some operations in normal usage, but you can pass the force option to tell Subversion I know what I'm doing as well as the possible repercussions of doing it, so let me at 'em. This option is the programmatic equivalent of doing your own electrical work with the power on—if you don't know what you're doing, you're likely to get a nasty shock.


Forces a suspicious parameter passed to the --message (-m) or --file (-F) option to be accepted as valid. By default, Subversion will produce an error if parameters to these options look like they might instead be targets of the subcommand. For example, if you pass a versioned file's path to the --file (-F) option, Subversion will assume you've made a mistake, that the path was instead intended as the target of the operation, and that you simply failed to provide some other—unversioned—file as the source of your log message. To assert your intent and override these types of errors, pass the --force-log option to subcommands that accept log messages.

--help (-h or -?)

If used with one or more subcommands, shows the built-in help text for each. If used alone, it displays the general client help text.




Tells Subversion to ignore externals definitions and the external working copies managed by them.




告诉 Subversion 在提交后不要删除修改集。


保留文件或目录的版本版本 (用于命令 svn delete)。

--limit (-l) NUM

Shows only the first NUM log messages.

--message (-m) MESSAGE

Indicates that you will specify either a log message or a lock comment on the command line, following this option. For example:

$ svn commit -m "They don't make Sunday."
--native-eol ARG

Causes svn export to use a specific end-of-line sequence as if it was the native sequence for the client platform. ARG may be one of CR, LF, or CRLF.

--new ARG

使用ARG作为新的目标(结合svn diff使用)。




Prevents Subversion from printing differences for deleted files. The default behavior when you remove a file is for svn diff to print the same differences that you would see if you had left the file but removed all the content.


Shows files in the status listing that would normally be omitted since they match a pattern in the global-ignores configuration option or the svn:ignore property. See 第 1.3.2 节 “配置” and 第 5 节 “忽略未版本控制的条目” for more information.


Tells Subversion not to automatically unlock files (the default commit behavior is to unlock all files listed as part of the commit). See 第 8 节 “锁定” for more information.

--non-recursive (-N)

Deprecated. Stops a subcommand from recursing into subdirectories. Most subcommands recurse by default, but some do not. Users should avoid this option and use the more precise --depth option instead. For most subcommands, specifying --non-recursive produces behavior which is the same as if you'd specified --depth=files, but there are exceptions: non-recursive svn status operates at the immediates depth, and the non-recursive forms of svn revert, svn add, and svn commit operate at an empty depth.



--old ARG

使用ARG作为旧的目标(结合svn diff使用)。


Creates and adds nonexistent or nonversioned parent subdirectories to the working copy or repository as part of an operation. This is useful for automatically creating multiple subdirectories where none currently exist. If performed on a URL, all the directories will be created in a single commit.

--quiet (-q)



Marks revisions as merged, for use with --revision (-r).

--recursive (-R)



Used with the svn merge subcommand, merges all of the source URL's changes into the working copy. See 第 3.2 节 “保持分支同步” for details.

--relocate FROM TO [PATH...]

Used with the svn switch subcommand, changes the location of the repository that your working copy references. This is useful if the location of your repository changes and you have an existing working copy that you'd like to continue to use. See svn switch (sw) for more details and an example.

--remove ARG

从变更列表 ARG 清除

--revision (-r) REV

Indicates that you're going to supply a revision (or range of revisions) for a particular operation. You can provide revision numbers, keywords, or dates (in curly braces) as arguments to the revision option. If you wish to offer a range of revisions, you can provide two revisions separated by a colon. For example:

$ svn log -r 1729
$ svn log -r 1729:HEAD
$ svn log -r 1729:1744
$ svn log -r {2001-12-04}:{2002-02-17}
$ svn log -r 1729:{2002-02-17}

第 1.1 节 “修订版本关键字”查看更多信息。


Operates on a revision property instead of a property specific to a file or directory. This option requires that you also pass a revision with the --revision (-r) option.

--set-depth ARG

Sets the sticky depth on a directory in a working copy to one of exclude, empty, files, immediates, or infinity. For detailed coverage of what these mean and how to use this option, see 第 7 节 “稀疏目录”.

--show-revs ARG

Used to make svn mergeinfo display either merged or eligible revisions.

--show-updates (-u)

Causes the client to display information about which files in your working copy are out of date. This doesn't actually update any of your files—it just shows you which files will be updated if you then use svn update.


Causes a Subversion subcommand that traverses the history of a versioned resource to stop harvesting that historical information when a copy—that is, a location in history where that resource was copied from another location in the repository—is encountered.


导致Subversion使用严格的语法,就是明确使用特定而不是含糊的子命令(也就是,svn propget)。


Display only high-level summary notifications about the operation instead of its detailed output.

--targets FILENAME

Tells Subversion to read additional target paths for the operation from FILENAME. FILENAME should contain one path per line, with each path expected to use the same encoding and formatting that it would if you had specified it directly as an argument on the command line.

--use-merge-history (-g)


--verbose (-v)

Requests that the client print out as much information as it can while running any subcommand. This may result in Subversion printing out additional fields, detailed information about every file, or additional information regarding its actions.


Prints the client version info. This information includes not only the version number of the client, but also a listing of all repository access modules that the client can use to access a Subversion repository. With --quiet (-q) it prints only the version number in a compact form.


Used with the --xml option to svn log, instructs Subversion to retrieve and display all revision properties—the standard ones used internally by Subversion as well as any user-defined ones—in the log output.


Used with the --xml option to svn log, instructs Subversion to omit all revision properties—including the standard log message, author, and revision datestamp—from the log output.

--with-revprop ARG

When used with any command that writes to the repository, sets the revision property, using the NAME=VALUE format, NAME to VALUE. When used with svn log in --xml mode, this displays the value of ARG in the log output.



1.2. svn 子命令

Here are the various subcommands for the svn program. For the sake of brevity, we omit the global options (described in 第 1.1 节 “svn 选项”) from the subcommand descriptions which follow.